jueves, 12 de octubre de 2017


          One of the world’s most important medical breakthroughs was the discovery of penicillin during the 1920s. Since the 1870s scientists had thought it would be possible to use some microorganisms to kill disease-causing microorganisms, but until Alexander Fleming came along, no one had been able to make the idea work.
        Born in 1881 on a farm in Lochfield, Ayrshire, Scotland, Alexander Fleming entered medical school when he was twenty years old. After graduating in 1908, he joined a research group. World War I interrupted his career, yet it influenced his future research. Appalled by the primitive methods of treating war wounds, Fleming determined that once he was back in a lab setting, he would experiment with ways to clean wounds of infectious microorganisms. One method he employed was to grow cultures of bacteria that caused painful boils. As he later examined one of the containers, he noticed that it was covered with colonies of fuzzy green mold. A second look showed that the mold seemed to be dissolving some of the bacteria. The green fuzzy mold, called penicillium, led to the development of penicillin.
        Through a series of controlled experiments, Fleming demonstrated that bacteria could be destroyed by injecting it with fluid filtered from the mold. Because it was so difficult to extract pure antibiotic substance, Fleming’s 1928 penicillin research was shelved. Ten years later research was revived by two chemists, Howard Florey and Ernst Chain, at Oxford University in England. The team successfully tested the drug on humans, and by 1943 at least 500,000 people a month were being treated with the antibacterial. In 1945 Florey, Chain, and Fleming received the Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.
        Thanks to their careful observations and painstaking work, diseases such as pneumonia and blood poisoning are no longer automatic death sentences for humans. In addition, other diseases, such as strep throat, sexually transmitted diseases, and urinary tract infections can now be easily cured with penicillin derivatives.
 Answer the questions:
 1-What does infectious mean?
 2-What are some synonyms for diseases?
3-What killed the bacteria?
4-Do you know the name f any other antibiotic?
5-Have you ever taken or injected penicillin?
6- Find the name of jobs in the text.